Wednesday, June 9, 2010

Meat Vs Humans’ Health

The article, “The Burger That shattered Her Life” from the New York Times,
Stephanie Smith was once a well fitted dance instructor, but her physical fitness did not last too long. During fall 2007 at dinner time, Smith ate a burger that her mother cooked.A day later, Smith began to feel a severe pain, a pain that turned her diarrhea bloody, put her in coma in the hospital. When she recovered from her coma, she was paralyzed for rest of her life (Michael Moss 1). Smith was not the only person who was victimized by burger meat, Kevin Michael Kowalcyk was also victimized. Burger meat never gave a 2 year old boy a chance to grow up, nor gave the little boy a chance to experience what life is about. Based on the same article, Kowalcyk was not the only kid who died from eating burger. In 1997, four other young kids died from eating Jack in the Box restaurants’burgers (1). Based on another article, “Foodborne Illnesses Are on the Rise,” from Gale Cengage Learning more than nine thousand were killed and millions were sickened by eating burger that was contaminated with Escherichia coli, every year (1). So why are so many people dying from simply eating meat, meat that is supposed to be nutritionally helpful for us? So this question began to intrigue me to see what is exactly going on inside the meat industries since our meat is being handled and processed there.In meat industries workers are being mistreated. Because of mistreatment, the workers are not following sanitary procedures, and animals are kept in unclean environment. As a consequence, there are people getting sick and dying.

In slaughterhouses, workers are terribly mistreated by employers, which can make it extremely difficult for workers to perform their duties. For example, when workers are injured, they are either told to get back to work, or they are fired because workers cannot miss work days. For instance, Human Rights Watch interviewed a worker from Smithfield Foods. The Worker said that the employee is always in constant pain in the “neck, shoulder, and arm” at home and at work. The worker is in fear for having x-rays because the worker thinks medical insurance will not cover them. Yet the worker has additional hospital bills from previous injuries. The worker also has a phobia of getting fired from work because absenteeism is prohibited, and if the rule is ignored, the worker will be forced to quit (54). In another example from Human Rights Watch, a worker said the employee “fell and slipped” three times on greasy floor. First and second time, worker was sent back to work after felling. Couple of days later, the worker was hospitalized because the employee could not move when waking up in midnight. When worker was given radiogram, it was found that the worker was diagnosed with “herniated disc.” After returning from the hospital recovery after 2 weeks, the worker was fired because the worker called for emergency service (65). And workers are constantly working at a high speed during their entire shift without having any breaks. For instance, in the article, “HOW SAFE IS OUR MEAT?” author Anne Vassal states, “ Workers are cutting up to 300 cows an hour, working long hours with few breaks.”(3) This automated systems not only proves that workers face terrible conditions, but also show that the workers face poor health conditions because they are performing heavy work with nonstop.

When workers are confronted with complications at work place, or outside work
place, they are much likely to be under stressed, which can be a negative sign for mental stress. For example, according to the article, “ Health: Workplace stress leads to health problems,” states that there are differences between “job stresses” and “challenges.” “challenges” give people strength mentally and physically, which influence individuals to want to aspire for “new skills” and accomplish
responsibilities. Once the “challenges” are executed, the skills and accomplishments fulfill the desires, and that calms the individuals. However, when “challenges” become rigorous, calmness rotates to distress, satisfaction becomes dissatisfaction, which can cause poor health, injuries, and unmet duties. (Health: Workplace stress leads to health problems 1) For example, Human Rights Watch interviewed an anonymous medical specialist from Arkansas, who stated that the patients, who work overtime, six days a week, experience “ psychological problems,” in addition to physical wounds. The overtime makes them suffer from “depression” and “exhaustion” (43) Vassal goes on to say that “since union membership is discouraged and workers are worried about job security, nothing is done to remedy dangerous working environment. Consequently, there is more opportunity for bacteria to multiply and diseased animals to wiz by unnoticed.” (3) This means that if workers are stress, depressed, and fatigued in the workplace, not only will they not complete the job, but they can put peoples’ health in danger by disregarding sick and ailing animals.

Therefore, when workers are strained, and drained at workplace, they are less likely not to complete their duties, or even follow sanitary procedures, which can be very dangerous when handling food, especially in a unsanitary place like slaughterhouses, which can easily contaminate the meat. for instance, an ex-Perdue worker, Donna Bazemore described slaughterhouses during attestation to parliament in the book Slaughterhouse, author Gail A. Eisnitz. Bazemore said that inside the plants there are soil, flab and grease on the floor, crawling insects on walls and floors, four to five inches flying roaches, huge blowflies, rats, snakes, and maggots. Workers “relieve” themselves during the shifts if they cannot go to the bathroom because employers are worried that bathroom breaks will slow down the production line, and workers chew and spit tobacco on the floor during the shift (172,173). During the testimony, Bazemore described the meat industries as “filthy.” However, I believe that any words related to “filthy” are not strong enough to describe these unspeakable, disgusting meat industries for sickening, and killing thousands of people each year. Can you imagine yourself not knowing that there could be dead rats, insects, huge flying roaches, animals’ and workers’ excrement,and tobacco spit on your meat, and eating it? This image is in fact is a reality inside the slaughterhouses. In North Carolina, six poultry plants were investigated under USDA’s Good Agricultural Practice, which tries to prevent food contamination. During the investigation, GAP has found chickens were covered with flies, maggots on chicken boxes, chickens covered with feces, decaying meat was mixed with new meat for babies’ food, and meats were grounded up with maggots, and employees would pick up meat from drain and put it back for processing (174, 175). This shows that the meat people buy or eat from restaurants could possibly be contaminated if the meat are not being inspected, or even if the meat is not handled right by workers for not following sanitary Procedures.

In additional to meat contamination due to workers’ mishandling the meat in
assembly line, meat can also be infected if farmers keep animals under unsanitary
conditions. For instance, according to Human Rights Watch a report from USDA

“visible ingesta on the brisket areas of carcass sides;”

“visible fecal material on the neck, armpit, underneath the foreshanks, and underneath the brisket area of two carcass sides;”

“a carcass was observed with an 11 ½ x 1” fecal contamination smear above the shoulder;”

“several pieces of greenish fecal matter in the belly area; …”(40)

The reason why this report proves us that the cattle are kept in a dirty, and unhygienic environment is because the cattle are covered with feed, manure, and abrasion. It is also disturbing because the cattle are covered with greenish material, which perhaps indicates that the cattle have been covered with digestion of grass for long time; however, the part of this matter is extremely nauseous is the fact that if these obnoxious matters gets on the meat, it not only can make the meat contaminated, but can cause people outbreaks, and deaths, as it dose happen when cattle are brought to slaughterhouses as Michael Moss states on the article, The Burger That shattered Her Life, “workers slicing away the hide can inadvertently spread feces to the meat, … sometimes slip and smear the meat with feces, …” (3) This could be one of the possible reason why Stephanie Smith was ill, and paralyzed; Smith could have eaten carcass meat, which could have been covered in feces, and the fecal could have spread into the meat somewhere in the assembly line.

In conclusion, in the United States there are two different types of government
agencies, whose jobs are to protect the American people; Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s job is to protect employees at workplace so that workers are not troubled by employers; United States Department of Agriculture’s duty is to protect food from contamination. However, what if both government and agencies fail the American people from consuming tainted meat? For instance, in the
article, “Inspections: Struggling to Do Their Jobs,” from, interview Dr. Paul Johnson states, “Instead of maintaining or slowing line speeds, the government is approving higher speeds.”(1) This is a prove that government is more concern about the economy then Americans’ welfare. And due to governments’ failure, agencies are reluctant to play their part as a inspector. For example, in the same site, an interviewed government agency food-safety director states that when inspectors are on their inspections, they just look through paper works, not checking for any food violations what so ever; inspectors do not prevent removing feces and other infections before the meat are stamped with USDA approval seal.(Inspectors: Struggling to Do their Jobs 1) So we should ask ourselves, what can we do to help ourselves, or what can we do? We can’t do much because people are still buying meat because they don’t know what is happening behind the close doors of these meat industries. Only way to know what exactly is happening is if media pays more attention so that they can televise what is actually happening and inform the public, and educating ourselves.


Human Rights Watch, Blood, Sweat, and Fear: Workers Rights in U.S. Meat and Poultry

Plants ( New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004)

Anne, Vassal. “How safe is our meat?” Mother Earth News 159 (1996): 20. Academic

Search Complete. EBSCO. Web 7 June 2010.

“Health: Workplace stress leads to health problems.” The Pakistan Newswire 19

April. 2010: 1-4. Print.

“Inspectors: Struggling to Do their Jobs.” www. Peta. n.d.

Eisnitz Gail A. Slaughterhouse: The shocking story of greed, neglect, and inhumane treatment

inside the U.S. meat industry. New York: Prometheus Book, 1997. Print.

Moss Michael. “The Burger That Shattered Her Life” The New York Times 4 October.2009, Late

Edition– Final. LexisNexis Academic. Web.14 May. 2010

Robinson, Robert A. “Foodborne Illnesses Are on the Rise.” At Issue: Food Safety. ED. Laura K.

Egendorf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000. Rpt. with permission from the House of Representatives,

Committee on Government Reform and Oversight Subcommitte on Human Resources and

Intergovernmental Relations, 23 May 1996. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 27 April 2010.

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

unions for fast food restaurants employees

What is union? A union is an organization for workers. Unions protect people from unfairness and conflicts that employees may face in working environment, and unions make sure that employees are safe and secure in the working environment. For instance, if a worker was fired without any good reason, then the union will step in to negotiate with the employer because in order to fire a worker, a worker must do something wrong that is against the company policy. However, many industries, like fast food restaurants, do not like to have unions even though the workers will pay for the unions every pay day. The pay depends on each individual union. Fast food chains think that having unions will give the workers too much power and motivation. In my perspective, unions in fast food restaurants are one crucial element that employees should have because they are being underpaid and injured in the work place.

In the United States, fast food restaurant is one of the fastest growing industries, that keep the American economy rolling. However, behind the counter is the most hectic, frustrating working environment you can ever experience because of it’s incoordinations, for minimum wage. For example, I myself worked at three different fast food restaurants: McDonalds, Burger King, and Wendy’s. Between these 3 restaurants, there are no contrasts. For instance, the stores were always unclean, which made employees work more, and it is difficult to deal with the duties because employees scarcely ever cleaned the kitchen during the business hours. The managers were always unsure of their doings, and their poor communication skills often lead to disputes and conflicts with employees and customers, and their schedules were always scattered, which resulted employees shortness. The most difficult part of working at the registers was dealing with the rude customers. In this matter, I should not fault the customers; I should assail the managers’ lack of organization, which leads to consumers’ madness due to food lateness. Every day, employees would hustle to serve the consumers within one minute, which is the policy of the restaurants. If the workers go over one minute, the manager will more likely to go nuts. And then, there is another freneticism which takes place inside the kitchen. The sandwich makers have less than a minute to finish one order, a order that could have more than two or more orders; in three different boards, each worker makes 3 different types of sandwiches, or three different varieties of foods. The individual workers has to complete the work solitarily. Oftentimes, if there are no helpers during rush hours, the restaurants’ atmosphere will be filled with noises and shouts from both sides of consumers and employees. Sometimes, there were confrontations among the staffs, as well.

first, in fast food restaurants employees are being victimized to work for free by not being paid for overtime, or not being paid at all by managers to save labor. In a report Steve Miletich says, “ In a verdict that could cost Taco Bell millions of dollars, a King County Superior Court jury yesterday that the California-based fast-food chain deliberately cheated its hourly workers in Washington state forcing them to work off the clock and forgo overtime pay” (1). This supports the fact that because this underpay dose not happens in only McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy’s, this also happens in other fast food restaurants. For example, This same scenario happened to myself as well. Only it it did not go to the court. When I worked at Burger King and Wendy’s, the managers cut my hours many times because either I made my 40 hours, or I exceeded 40 hours, which is over time. The chains were supposed to pay for time and a half because it is overtime. For instance, there were many times managers asked me to stay for next shift because oftentimes employees would call out sick, so I would stay, just to make extra earnings. As the pay day, which was Friday, would arrive, I would look into my check, and see no overtime pay, nor overtime hours. However, I never made any complaints because I never wanted to cause any sort of disputes, which I thought could lead me to distrust. This also happened to many of my colleagues. If we had a union they would not have cut our hours, or even steal our working hours.

Second, every year, employees working at fast food chains are injured when handling restaurant equipment. The common types of injuries are slipping and falling, chemical burning, and getting cuts; the worst injuries are oil and fire burns. In a report that was conducted, Sonny Inbaraj wrote, “ Joe, a 16-year-old students, is employed as a kitchen hand at a fast-food outlet here on a casual part-time basis. On one occasion he was injured by fire, but his boss told him it was his own fault and ordered him to keep working to serve the customers” (1). This shows that it is difficult to avoid injuries when you are surrounded by technical machines, especially when operating them throughout the shift because first you are dropping food and taking food in and out of oil, and, second you are cleaning more than one machine at the same time. For instance, when I worked at Burger King I was burned almost all the time when cleaning, and dropping foods. Those fry machines are no joke, and they are not to be played with because one small mistake can lead to a very dangerous scene if not properly handled carefully. For example, one busy summer day, I was told to clean all the fry machines quickly due to employee shortness. At that time, it was my second working week, with short knowledge about the restaurant’s equipment, but I was confident to complete the job. However, that assuredness did so little to help me avoid the flame that burst from the machine because I had forgotten to lock a cover where the oil comes out. Luckily, I was not burned due to my distance way from the fryer, not scabbing or cleaning. What if there weren’t any luck, then I would have been hospitalized with more than thousands of dollars of hospital bills sitting in my house. This is why a union is very important to have. They will help you to pay medical bills. And unions ensures safe conditions.

In conclusion, having unions in fast food restaurants for employees not only can make a differences, but can also save those workers from getting hours cut, and from getting injured. And not only that unions will make sure you are safe and secure in your workplace, unions will make sure that your voice is heard.


Inbaraj Sunny. “ Labor-Australia: fast-Food Workers Seek Union.” IPS-Inter Press Service. June 16,2004, Wednesday.

Miletich Steve. “ Taco Bell Is Found Guilty Of Worker Abuses.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer. April 9, 1997, Wednesday, Final.

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

soda tax part 2

The city mayor and state governor of New York, are strenuously trying to retain on to make sugary drinks a penny per ounce tax as a law. However, based on news articles like NY Times, NY Post, Daily News paper, the disputes are ranging in peoples’ point of view. Some people say that, this tax is just a money grab. Others say, it will make positive differences. In my perspective, this soda tax can significantly make huge amount of differences in terms of health wise and economic wise.

Obesity is one of the highest dilemma New Yorkers are facing. And this obesity is worsening over the time periods. Statistics from has shown that adults percentage is 37 and youngsters percentage is 18 in New York. These percentages may soured over time. As mayor Bloomberg has said on the radio broadcast, “ An extra 12 cents on a can of soda would raise nearly $1 billion, allowing us to keep health services open and teachers in classrooms. And, at the same time, it would help us fight a major problem plaguing our children: obesity.” When going outside, you will see overweight people in every turn, especially young overweight students with a can or bottle of highly sugary drinks or energy drinks ,like, Red Bull on their hands. In my class, Eng 101, were in argument about this soda tax, whether this proposal will prevent people from buying sugary drinks. As group 4 were against this soda tax quoted, “ This is nothing, but a money grab.” However, they are ignoring that this tax would help raise billions of dollar funds to pay for health care, especially for those obese people. If government do not do anything, or have control over those consumption industries, than this will go out of hand and it will worsen; when it dose, these industries will produce whatever they like.

And than, there is economic crisis which New Yorkers are confronting with, and it is causing budget deficits as well. The budget deficit in New York has increased from $750 to $8 billion. This budget shortages is causing job losses. In New York Bloomberg is cutting jobs. This soda is going to help this gaps to be fill. Unfortunately, group 4 thinks “it is just a money grab.” Bloomberg said that if this soda bill gets passed it will help many to start to build up the economy.

Monday, May 3, 2010

Anottated Bibliography #3

Joby Warrick. “ Modern Slaughtering Methods Are Inhumane.” The Washington Post Weekly Edition. 2005

In this article, it first gives abstraction about what goes on in the slaughterhouse, in terms of animal cruelty. And it starts in a introduction, it stars by taking a story by IBP meat industry worker’s experiences. For instance, how planters, violate the regulation from Human Slaughter act goes unpunished. As further in paragraphs, it gives details about the types of cattle and hogs abusiveness that are done in plants, from various types of witnesses, and hidden evidence in slaughterhouses. It gives details about improper using stunning in animals and the way slaughtered alive. Example, when cattle are stunned on the head they become unconscious; the worst part is when the animals are killed and being sliced bit by bit while they are alive. There are no conclusion in this news article.

Chris Clarke. “ Mad Cow: worse than you think.” Earth Island Journal. Summer 2004.

This article begins the passage by an incidence which took place in December, about a cattle which was found positive for mad cow disease, and one month later, the USDA failed to detect 80 animals that were fed in same herd could have infected. The infected cattle that were shifted from Canada to Washington. Since than, it has developed many frightened , especially when 100 Britons died by the beef contamination of agony. After that, the ban an testing the downer cows to not to be used for consumptions. Next paragraph states that secretary of Agriculture delayed the “ country of origin labeling” shortly known for COOL, could have helped to trace the infected cows from Canada. As further down the paragraph, it discusses about nv-CJD, a name of mad cow disease. Nv- CSD is a worsen tissue that is inside a nervous system, which can cause disease know as TSE. Next paragraph describes the foundation of TSE. It describes that TSE is invented when animals are fed “ bypass-protein,” by using tube, the consequences can cause infection. When cattle bowel is empty, the are shifted to slaughter house for meat packaging. No conclusion in this passage. “ Bad Beef? “undercover investigation spurs largest beef recall in history. March 3, 2008.

In this passage, an investigation revealed what types treatment was given to the animals on a video at the plant. In the video, it mentions how a cow was being treated by fork lifting, and the violence that was used on the cow. The article mentions, because it’s treatment can lead to infection, and most importantly, can make people outbreaks when consuming the meat. Than, it explains the federal laws, that before shipping the animals to slaughterhouse, are to be inspected for any downer cows. When anonymous investigator went undercover as an employee, it discovered that many of those workers do not feel any sympathy when torturing those animals. It went to say that animals are cruelly mistreated when they are brought to the plants. Workers would hit, kick, use physical forces. After the video was aired about these scenes, all meats were pulled.

Gail A. Eisnitz. “Slaughterhouse. The shocking story of greed, neglect, and inhumane treatment inside the U.S. meat industry.” “ Mommy, Am I going to die?”

In this chapter, it first starts with open questions about E. coli questioned by Mary Heersink, a founder of Safe Tables Our Priority. Next paragraph, talks about Timothy Walker who works for USDA. Next paragraph, tells a story of Mary Heersink’s son who past away from eating “tainted” burger. Mary told her parts about her son’s illness with other parents, whose children were as well contaminated by eating burger. In each paragraphs, talks about the sufferings each children being in the hospital. For instance, Brianne, who was in hospitalized for 168 days. And gives details about how her facial have changed when eating a hamburger. Next couple of paragraphs talks about the transitions in the hospital.

Karen Ollson. The Nation. “ The Shame Of Meat Packing” September 16, 2002.

In this story, it takes about how workers are being treated unfairly in these meat packing industries, like IBP, Excel, ConAgra, and farmland Nation Beef which 85% are controlled by US market. In the beginning of this passage, it started with an incidence which was an employee was reluctant to keep up with his speed. The supervisor threatened all employees if they did not want back to their duties. When went under strike with help of Teamster Local 556, had given some strength, especially Martinez, who were once as well a farmer and meat packer. On paragraphs it speaks about the union. Before the union, employees were working under a risk and dangerous work environment, making knives all the time. It states that about 781 were injured. Many of these reason were due to language barrier, which also helps these meat industries to keep these worker keep quiet because they do speak any English.

Thursday, April 29, 2010

restaurant employees and union

When working for a company, it is very crucial to have union, especially when working for a company where your life can be in danger, or if not danger then where you could be treated unfairly by the company. As a result, when having union, you will be marked for sure that union will be behind you for 24/7. However, some companies don’t like to have union for their employees, especially multi billion companies like Burger King, McDonalds, Taco Bell, and many others. Fast food restaurant employees should be unionized because they are being abused and treated unfairly

In United States, fast food restaurants are one the fastest growing industries that roles the Americans’ economy. Everyday it serves millions of customers per day , possibly more. These restaurants possesses about millions of employees, majority employees are foreigners. These employees are hard working employees. Their works are intense everyday whether if it is a busy day or not. For instance, I myself worked at Burger King and McDonalds. There are no differences between these two chains. Everyday I would hassle to serve customers. Often time, during the rush hours, would lead to frustrations and confusions because you’re constantly on active from the moment you walk into the kitchen and after taking one 30 minute break. The duties are always multitasked. Even if you finished with your work, the managers will find something for you to do. Specially when it comes to cleaning part, you have to do more than one cleanings a day.

First, in fast food restaurants employees are being victimized to work for free by not paying for overtime, or not being paid at all by managers to save labors. In a report by Steve Miletich says, “ In a verdict that could cost Taco Bell millions of dollars, a King County Superior Court jury yesterday that the California-based fast-food chain deliberately cheated its hourly workers in Washington state forcing them to work off the clock and forgo overtime pay. This is true because this same scenario happened to myself as well only think that did not take place was court part. When I worked at Burger King, the managers cut my hours many times because either I made my 40 hours, or I exceeded over 40 hours, which is over time, that company supposed to pay for time and a half because of making overtime. For instance, once, one of the manager asked me to stay for next shift because one of the employees called out sick, so I stayed, just to make extra earnings. As the day of the pay, which was Friday, arrived, I looked at my check, there were no overtime pay nor were there any overtime hours. However, I did not make any complaints because I did not want to cause any sort of disputes, which I thought could lead me to distrust. This also happened to many of my colleagues. If we had union they would not have cut our hours, or even steal our working hours.

Second, every year, employees work at fast food chains are injured when handling restaurant equipments. The common types of injuries are slipping and falling, chemical burning, and getting cuts; the most popular injuries are oil and fire burns. In a report that was conducted by Sonny Inbaraj wrote, “ Joe, a 16-year-old students, is employed as a kitchen hand at a fast-food outlet here on a casual part-time basis. On one occasion he was injured by fire, but his boss told him it was his own fault and ordered him to keep working to serve the customers.” It is very hard to avoid this type of injury when you are surrounded by fry machines throughout the shift because 1st you are dropping food and taking food out from oil, and 2nd you are cleaning more than one machine in same time. For instance, when I worked at Burger King I was burned almost all the time when cleaning the fry machines. Those machines are no joke because sometime they can be very dangerous if properly not handled or careful. For example, one busy ,summer day, I was told to clean all the fry machines quickly due to employee shortness. At that time, it was my 2nd working week, with short knowledge about the restaurant’s equipments, but I was confident to complete the job. However, that assuredness did so little to help me avoid the flame that burst from the machine because I had forgotten to lock a cover where the oil comes out from. Luckily, I was not burned due to my 1 feet away from the fryer, not scabbing or cleaning. What if there weren’t any luck, then I would have been hospitalized. Probably ,still, would be sitting at this very moment and writing this essay with a thousands of dollar hospital bill without any union to back me up.

In conclusion, having union in fast food restaurants for employees not only can make a differences, but can save those workers from getting hours cut, and from getting injured. More importantly, this can stop these chains from any other types of nonsense.


Steve Miletich. " Taco Bell Is Found Guilty Of Worker Abuses." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. April 9, 1997, Wednesday, Final

Sonny Inbaraj." Labor-Australia: Fast-Food Workers Seek Union." IPS-Inter Press Service. June 16,2004, Wednesday.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Annotated Bibliography # 2

Lauren Dundes, Tamiko Swann “ Food safety in fast food restaurant.” Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol. 7(2), 2008

This article first introduces the passage by informing that the customers are less concern about the safety of their food when eating in restaurants. In the introduction, it indicates that because of little experiences, the author interviewed a college restaurant working employee to gain more information. First paragraph, starts by stating that violations comes from poor hygiene, cleanliness, food handling, and sanitation. Because of low wage, employees are less concern about their doings. Second paragraph begins by giving numbers of violations which caused illnesses of malfunctions of ice cream machine. In the third paragraph, it uses a procedure by using information given by 3 restaurants working college student. The student described about her experiences in each chains. She gives details about how the trainings does not come effective because the training video is boring; second, the managers let whatever employees do, especially about food concerns. Third, at her third job, she had no trainings when she started working at the cafeteria. Fourth paragraph, she goes detailed about food temperature, how foods are being reused when cooked., how foods are barely looked after by employees. College student attaches about contamination. When employees handle food they are reluctant to change their gloves and wrongly using utensils when cooking. Hand washings are is the biggest problem. The author gives his opinion about what he thinks every chains must do in order to prevent mistakes. For instance, he sates that chains must train their employees properly and tell every chains to have certified food safety managers. The author concludes that the employees follow the rules and regulations. And if managers employ the rules it can minimize the health risks.

Applied Foodservice Sanitation. A certification Coursebook fourth edition: contamination and food borne illness. 1993

In this chapter of contamination and food borne illness, it begins by stating the three types of dangerous reliable for food outbreaks. The three types are biological hazards, chemical hazards, and physical hazards. Each of these hazards are explained in details. For instance, biological hazards gives details about the types of bacteria it carries, and explains each one, what it dose, how it grows, when it grows, and gives a usual case, and how it can be control. It gives details about chemical hazard. It explains 4 types of chemicals detergents, preservatives, acidic, and toxic metals. It gives details about each. Pesticides is a chemical that is sprayed to kill insects in food which can be harmful, foodservice cleaning chemical are o be away from food. Explains about additives and preservatives that are added to favor and ingredient the food for not to decay and to flavor the food which can lead to vomiting, diarrhea and asthma attacks. Metal-lined causes problem with acidic food items.

Vasal Anne, " How safe is our meat?" Mother Earth News, Dec 96/Jan 97.

This article introduces by stating how Upton Sinclars' book, The Jungle, has influnced government to pass a law in meat industries in 1906. However, he states that the law did not come to effective in new century. The next paragraph describes how 80,000 chicken are over crowded in a warehouse, causes themselves sick, and deaths. Next paragraph, describes antibiotics given to chickens to grow harmone can result salmonella, which can disable chicken and disease, or infection with cancer name Leukosis. Feeding chicken wastes to gain weight , can contaminate chicken with salmonella. Then, next paragraph talks about after sperm taken from male cows to implant the sperm into female cows are isolated from other cattles so that the cows can be fattened up by steriods. Next paragraph, talks about harmone growth residues can be transfer bacteria into human's body. Next paragraph, talks about the conditions in slaughterhouses. How employees are understressed and their working conditions can lead to many sanitary mistakes, for instance, workers pick up meat from floor and puts it back for meat processing, also it talks about government inspectors can't do much except reading, writing and negotiating with planters instead of giving summons or fines. It explains governments do not want to interfere because government do want to slow down the pace of meat processings. In conclusion, the author gives tips where to buy whole foods, and meats. The author mentions about Kosher, and Amish poultry, where can buy natural chicken. The author gives warning about labels, that poople read the labels about where meats are originated before buying meats.

Karen Olsson, " The sham of meatpacking" The Nation, September 16, 2002.

The introduction starts by IBP meat industry. A worker name Maria Martinez was called in the office because Maria was not in her speed in the assembly line. Then, thirty of other worker decided to to involved. Many of the workers refused to get back to their duties when they were told to returned to their duties by the supervisor. Workers were told they were all fired, which resulted strike for five weeks. After, workers were defeated, they lost their $1.50 an hour pension. Next paragraph, the author describes that this had happened before when IBP and Excel meat industries paying workers low wage and when there shortage of employees. The following paragraphs, the author paraphrase what Eric Schlossers' "Fast Food Nation" about the conditions these workeres are employeed in most dangerous job. The author
The author states talks about employees who are immegrants can't speak English; and because of their language bariers, the employees will not open their mouth about any sanitary conditions. This is why meat industries hire immigrants; indistries also hire them because of law wage. The author states that workers are being disrespected by employeers. They are forced to work with covered in diarrhea because workers are not allowed to go to bathroom. Because workers quits or get fired due to the these working conditons, workers reluctant to follow their sanitation policy, for instance, the author states that worker do not have time to wash the dropped knife because they have to keep up with the assembly pace. In conlusion, the author says that consumers should care what is going on these meat packing industries because we are the meat consumers. And to alter those industries, we need be aware to inform what is going on.

Michael Moss, "The Burger That Shattered Her Life" The New York Times,October 3, 2009

In this news article, a victimized a dance instructor name Stephanie Smith was in coma when she was forced to put in coma because of terrible pain which she was suffering. Her diarrhea was bloody. when shevrecovered from coma, she paralyzed all becuase of eating burger, a burger which was contaminated with E Coli that her mother made.The reporter states that the there had been many other outbreaks and deaths , including Jack in the Box restaurant in 1993. The burger is not made from one animal but different other animal from different slaughterhouses. The meat was grinded by Cargil meat industry. the industry uses ammonia in meat trimming to kill bacteria.USDA states that the meat industries must inspect the meat before the meat is shift, but that hardly ever happens. The article states that many meat indistries only sells meat if the grinders agrees not to inspect for E coli. The article indicates that people wash hands and epuipments throughly.

Monday, April 19, 2010

Annotated bibliography 1

Robert Cribb, Toronto Star.(September 25, 2003): Meat processors cited for food safety violations. The Toronto Star.
This news article states that in Toronto out of 48 about 8 planter were under violation of sanitation, and food handling. Violations included: food contamination, employees not hand washing, uncleanmliness of facilities, and maintenance issues, not having divided hand washing sinks, and unclean appliances which can lead to food contaminations. It also states how each violators are given different types of violation tickets, not fines. The violators must fix the issues within hours of twenty-four to forty-eight. However, the health department do not always inspect the food corporations.

E. d. William Dudley. Sand Diego: Greenhaven press 1999: Consumers should practice safe food-handling habits to prevent illnesses.
This article first introduces the point of view from the American Council on science and Health of what type of bacteria causes food poisons. And gives arguments how being aware can prevent food sickness when consuming it, and increasing the price of food can raise in order to alter the food structures to decrease food sicknesses. After, it explains in details about the foods outbreaks; what each types of outbreaks can do to the body. Second, it explains what and how improperly handling the food can cause food infection. It gives details about the quality of food deals with the amount of money people spent on food. In conclusion, it gives the over view to follow the sanitation rules and regulation can not always stop the spread of bacteria, nor when consuming can never be “risk-free.”

Phaedra Hise (April 2004). Orange Alert protect your self from food borne.
In this passage, the author explains the same contaminations carries in the “produce and meat.” it estimates how many out breaks there were from meat to vegetables and fruits from 1999 to 2000 that caused deaths and caused people to go under medical treatment. Processing vegetables unwashed can infect the vegetables. The author quotes from Dimatteo’s organization that not to rinse vegetables with any sort of chemicals because it can observe it.

Applied foodservice sanitation: certification course book fourth edition updated with FDA (1993)
In the chapter, the safe food handler, begins by how employees, who work at restaurants
,are held reliable for contaminating the food, and how with right trainings can help the contamination of food before serving it to the consumers by steps. In each sections, the chapter states when employees are sick or injured can transfer those consequences to the foods. Next section talks about what ways to prepare employees to do their duties in order to avoid health risks. The third section explains in details about employees “hygiene,” and keeping the restaurant in clean environment.

Hailu Kassa, Ph.d., M.P.H., M.S.O.H. An Outbreak of Nowalk-like viral gastroeteritis in a frequently penalized food service operation: A case for mandatory of food handlers in safety and hygiene (December 2001)

This article introduces by giving numbers of estimation of how many people were effected by different types of food borne, and caused by eating outside food. And explains how food makers can spread food viruses. Last paragraph of the introduction gives a scenario about a Christmas outbreak. After introduction, people who were at Christmas party were investigated by graphic. 137 people were examined, found that they were sick because of the consuming of the food because the food were not properly handled and because of employees’ hygiene. In conclusion, it is stated that poorly handle food and improper training can cause food borne.